What is Minocycline?
Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic with a broad spectral effect, active against various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it is prescribed strictly for medical reasons. The drug helps in the treatment of acne on the back and shoulders, as well as other infectious diseases.
Indications for use
Use is advisable for infections provoked by a pathogenic bacterial flora that is sensitive to the effect of the drug.
The drug is prescribed for:
- gallbladder and biliary tract infections;
- bacterial lesions of the urogenital tract, including cystitis, gonorrhea, pyelonephritis, provoked by gonococcus, Escherichia coli, protea, Klebsiella, enterobacter;
- gonorrheal lesions of the mucous membrane of the rectum and throat, syphilis (if there are contraindications to antibiotics from the penicillin group);
- infections of the skin and soft tissues (abscess, furunculosis, impetigo, pyoderma) caused by bacteria of the Staphylococcus strain, Proteus, E. coli (in some diseases, Minocycline is the drug of choice and is prescribed for intolerance or resistance to other antibiotics);
- respiratory tract lesions, including bronchitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, sinusitis and tonsillitis caused by hemophilic bacillus, Klebsiella, enterobacter (Minocycline is not prescribed for acute throat lesions).
In addition, the drug is prescribed for ornithosis, plague, tularemia, brucellosis, cholera, listeriosis, anthrax, actinomycosis. As part of combination therapy, it is possible to use a medication for amoebiasis, carriage of meningococcus to prevent the development of the disease.
The list of restrictions for admission includes the following diseases and conditions:
- individual intolerance of the medicinal and therapeutically inactive substances included in the preparation;
- severe allergic reactions to doxycycline and other tetracycline antibiotics in history;
- terminal lesions of the liver and kidneys;
- a critical decrease in white blood cell count;
- systemic lupus erythematosus;
- myasthenia gravis (myasthenia gravis);
- children under 8 years of age (in foreign sources, in particular, according to information provided on the FDA website, it is recommended to refrain from using minocycline until reaching 13 years of age).
Due to the peculiarities of the pharmacokinetics of the drug, its administration is contraindicated in carrying a child. Also, for the period of therapy, breastfeeding should be abandoned. – a source:
Instruction for use
Adults At the initial stage of therapy, the daily dose is 400 mg of the drug, then 200 mg per day. The total dose is divided into two doses with a strict interval of 12 hours.
Children (weighing more than 50 kg or older than 13 years in accordance with the recommendations of the American FDA). The initial dosage is 4 mg / kg, then it is reduced to 2 mg / kg. The tactics of use are the same – they drink the daily amount in two divided doses with an interval of 12 hours.
The exact dosage and duration of therapy is determined by the doctor in accordance with the main diagnosis and the alleged sensitivity to the action of minocycline. Take the whole medicine with a sufficient amount of water or milk with increased acidity or ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal mucosa.
Treatment chart table
|Chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and other lesions of the genitourinary tract||100 mg twice a day, treatment may be reduced to one and a half weeks|
|Lesions of the pelvic organs in women||Prescribed in a therapeutic dose, often in combination with antibiotics from the cephalosporin group|
|Syphilis||Prescribed for intolerance or resistance to penicillins 200 mg per day|
|Gonococcal infections||200 mg twice a day, then 100 mg per day. Treatment is stopped after laboratory confirmation of recovery|
|Acne||1 mg / kg, up to 3 months may be taken|
|Children and teens|
|Regardless of the diagnosis||The initial dose is 4 mg / kg, the maintenance dose is 2 mg / kg per day|
Against the background of the application, the development of the following complications is possible:
- Effect on the central nervous system: increased intracranial pressure, dizziness (extremely rarely – speech impairment), headaches, drowsiness, convulsive disorders.
- Gastrointestinal complications: pathological loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, stool disorders, dyspeptic symptoms, stomatitis, glossitis, enterocolitis, pancreatic lesions, ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa. In isolated cases – pseudomembranous colitis.
- Effects on bone tissue, including teeth: discoloration of the tooth and enamel hypoplasia (especially in children under the age of 13), very rarely arthritis and other connective tissue lesions.
- Effect on the kidneys: infrequently – interstitial nephritis and other organ lesions, is dose-dependent.
- Complications of the epidermal cover: a rash of various nature, rarely – hair loss, photosensitivity, urticaria, discoloration of nails, lips, skin and mucous membranes. In isolated cases – Stevens-Johnson syndrome, vasculitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis.
- Hypersensitivity reactions: urticaria, angioedema, polyarthralgia, anaphylactic conditions.
- Autoimmune complications from the liver, myocardium, skin.
- Effects on the respiratory tract: cough, dyspnea, extremely rare – bronchospasm, asthma, pulmonary eosinophilia, pneumonitis.
When taking a dose in excess of the prescribed instructions for use, an overdose may occur. It is characterized by dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. There is no specific antidote for minocycline. If the dose is exceeded, it is necessary to stop taking the drug. carry out supportive and symptomatic treatment. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis are ineffective.
With the development of severe allergies, administration is stopped.
With persistent diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis is excluded.
With prolonged use or concomitant liver diseases, organ functions are constantly monitored to prevent autoimmune hepatitis.
Due to the increased photosensitivity, the patient should avoid direct sunlight.
After taking the drug, it is not recommended to take a horizontal position of 30-40 minutes in order to avoid peptic ulcer.